Smiling woman point at teeth

What Are Your Teeth Made Of?

When you’re brushing your teeth each morning and night, you may not be thinking about what your actions are doing for your teeth. Teeth are complex, and each part of the tooth works together to allow you to eat, smile and talk every day. You might only see your pearly whites when you look in the mirror, but there also many parts of the inner tooth that are not visible to you. Learn what teeth are made out of and how each part works.

What Types of Tissues Make Up Each Tooth?

There are four types of dental tissues in each tooth.1 Three of the four tissues are hard, and the fourth inner layer is soft.1 Let’s learn about each dental tissue type and how they function:


Enamel is the hard calcified tissue that makes up the outermost layer of the tooth.1 It is not only the hardest part of the tooth, but also the hardest substance in the entire human body.2 This protective tissue forms a barrier against physical, thermal and chemical forces that can cause damage to the dentin and pulp.2 But as strong as enamel is, it cannot repair damage from tooth wear because it does not contain living cells.


Dentin is a thick layer that consists of most of the dental tissues.3 It is covered by the enamel at the top of the tooth and cementum at the roots.3 The dentin contains microscopic tubules, which allow hot and cold to stimulate the nerves inside the tooth if the enamel wears away.1


Cementum is the third layer of hard connective tissue in the teeth. It is located by the root of the tooth and attaches it to the periodontal ligament.1


The pulp is the soft tissue that is located at the center of the tooth.1 It contains nerves, blood vessels and connective tissue, and is the only dental tissue that is not hard.1

What Are the Dental Tissues Made Of?

The tissues in our teeth are comprised of many interesting ingredients. 95 percent of enamel, the hardest part of the tooth, is made up of minerals.4 A majority of the minerals in this percentage are calcium and phosphorous.4 To put things into perspective, the cementum and the bones in the body are only about 65 percent minerals.3 The other 5 percent of enamel consists of water and proteins.4

The Role of Your Gums

Although your gums are not a part of your teeth, they play a major role in supporting them. Your gums, or gingiva are soft tissues that protect the roots of your teeth.1 They also cover any teeth that have not erupted yet.1 When caring for your teeth, it’s also important to make sure that your gums are healthy and strong as well.

What Can You Do to Protect Your Teeth?

Since enamel cannot repair itself from damage, it’s important to take measures in ensuring that you are practicing the right dental hygiene methods to keep this strong protective layer intact. Brushing twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste like Pronamel Active Shield Fresh Mint Toothpaste will help remineralize weakened enamel and protect against cavities. To strengthen enamel and restore your teeth’s natural whiteness, try Pronamel Intensive Repair Whitening Toothpaste.

Your teeth are made up of tissues that protect them from damage, and caring for your teeth by twice daily brushing will help keep them strong. Find more oral health tips about tooth enamel from Pronamel.

Source Citations :

  1. Tooth. American Dental Association.  Accessed 10/23/2023.
  2. Dental Enamel Formation and Implications for Oral Health and Disease. National Library of Medicine.  Accessed 10/23/2023.
  3. Dentin: Structure, Composition and Mineralization. National Library of Medicine.  Accessed 10/23/2023.
  4. Tooth Enamel. Cleveland Clinic.  Accessed 10/23/2023.
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